Java Tutorial

This Java Tutorial is designed for beginners as well as experienced professionals. Whether you’re looking to learn the basics of Java or its advanced concepts, this free Java tutorial is the perfect resource for you.

What is Java?

Developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995, Java is a highly popular, object-oriented programming language. This platform independent programming language is utilized for Android development, web development, artificial intelligence, cloud applications, and much more.

In this tutorial, we will cover everything from the basics of Java syntax to advanced topics like object-oriented programming and exception handling. So, by the end of this tutorial, you will have a strong understanding of Java and be ready to start writing your own Java applications. So let’s get started on this comprehensive Java programming tutorial!

First Java Program

// A Java program to print "Hello World" 
public class GFG { 
    public static void main(String args[]) 
        System.out.println("Hello World"); 


Hello World

For full explanation of the above Program –

Table of Content

  • Java Overview
  • Java Basics
  • Java Input/Output
  • Java Flow Control
  • Java Operators
  • Java Arrays
  • Java Strings
  • Java OOPs Concepts
  • Java Classes
  • Java Interfaces
  • Java Methods
  • Java Packages
  • Java Collection Framework
  • Java Collection Classes
  • Java Memory Allocation
  • Java Exception Handling
  • Java Multithreading
  • Java Synchronization
  • Java File Handling
  • Java Regex
  • Java IO
  • Java Networking
  • Java SE 8 Features
  • Java Date & Time
  • Java JDBC
  • Java Miscellaneous
  • Java Interview Questions

Get Started with Free Java Tutorial

Here in this section, you will find all the free resources that you need to become zero to mastery in Java programming language.

Overview of Java

Basics of Java

Input/Output in Java

Flow Control in Java

Operators in Java

Arrays in Java

Strings in Java

OOPS in Java

OOPS in Java refers to Object-Oriented Programming concepts implemented in the Java programming language. Java’s OOP features include classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation, enabling modular and efficient code development. Understanding OOPS in Java is essential for building robust, scalable, and maintainable software applications.

Classes of Java

Classes in Java are the blueprint for creating objects and defining their properties and behaviors. They are the fundamental building blocks of Java programs, enabling the creation of reusable and modular code. Classes can contain fields, methods, constructors, and nested classes, providing a wide range of functionality and flexibility.

Interfaces in Java

Interfaces in Java are abstract types that define a set of methods that a class must implement. They provide a way to achieve abstraction, multiple inheritance, and loose coupling in Java programs. Interfaces are useful for defining common behaviors and functionalities that can be shared across different classes, leading to more modular and reusable code. Mastering interfaces in Java is crucial for building flexible and extensible software applications.

Methods in Java

Packages in Java

Collection Framework in Java

Collection Classes in Java

Memory Allocation in Java

Exception Handling in Java

Multithreading in Java

Synchronization in Java

File Handling in Java

Java Regex

Java IO

Java Networking

Java SE 8 Features

Java Date & Time


Java Miscellaneous

Interview Questions on Java

Features of Java

Java is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages.
  • Java has been one of the most popular programming languages for many years.
  • Java is Object Oriented. However, it is not considered as pure object-oriented as it provides support for primitive data types (like int, char, etc)
  • The Java codes are first compiled into byte code (machine-independent code). Then the byte code runs on Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying architecture.
  • Java syntax is similar to C/C++. But Java does not provide low-level programming functionalities like pointers. Also, Java codes are always written in the form of classes and objects.
  • Java is used in all kinds of applications like Mobile Applications (Android is Java-based), desktop applications, web applications, client-server applications, enterprise applications, and many more.
  • When compared with C++, Java codes are generally more maintainable because Java does not allow many things which may lead to bad/inefficient programming if used incorrectly. For example, non-primitives are always references in Java. So we cannot pass large objects (like we can do in C++) to functions, we always pass references in Java. One more example, since there are no pointers, bad memory access is also not possible.
  • When compared with Python, Java kind of fits between C++ and Python. The programs are written in Java typically run faster than corresponding Python programs and slower than C++. Like C++, Java does static type checking, but Python does not.

Applications of Java

Here in this section, we have added some of the applications that were developed using the Java programming language.

  • Mobile Applications
  • Desktop GUI Applications
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Scientific Applications
  • Cloud Applications
  • Embedded Systems
  • Gaming Applications

Java Practice Problems

Keep up your pace and try hard till you excel in it. This will need some motivation and resources to Practice Java. So, there are few resources mentioned below this will help you in your journey:

Java Jobs & Opportunity

According to report of Java is most demanded programming languages after JavaScript by recruiters worldwide in 2024. Major MNC companies are recruiting Java Programmers.

Java Latest & Upcoming Features

On march Java has released Java 21 and here in this section we have mentioned all the latest features that one can opt in Java 21. Along with this we have also mentioned the pipeline features of upcoming Java update.

  • Hidden Classes (Preview): Introduces a mechanism to restrict access to specific members of a class, enhancing modularity and code maintainability.
  • Improved Garbage Collector Ergonomics (JEP 429): Simplifies configuration and monitoring of the garbage collection process.
  • API Updates: Updates to existing APIs like for better file handling capabilities.

Upcoming Features (Expected in Java 22 – September 2024):

  • Vector API (Incubator): A new API designed for high-performance vector computations, potentially beneficial for scientific computing and machine learning applications.
  • Project Panama (Preview): Aims to improve interoperability between Java and native code, potentially simplifying interactions with non-Java libraries and frameworks.
  • Trends in Java Development:

    • Java continues to prioritize features that enhance application performance and developer experience.
    • Java’s strong position in cloud environments is expected to hold as cloud computing remains a dominant trend.
    • Java’s suitability for building scalable and modular systems aligns well with the popularity of microservices architectures.
    • Expect to see Java evolving to integrate more seamlessly with technologies like artificial intelligence, big data, and the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • Java Programming Tutorial: FAQs

  • Why use Java ?

  • Java is simple to learn programming language because doesn’t contain concepts like : Pointers and operator overloading and it is secure and portable.
  • What are the major concepts in Java?

  • There are 4 major concept in Java that is abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance. Along with this Java also works with three OOPs concept
  • How Java different to C++ ?

  • C++JAVA
    C++ is platform dependent.Java is platform independent.
    C++ uses compiler only.Java uses compiler and interpreter both.
    C++ support pointers and operator overloading.Java doesn’t support pointers and operator overloading concept.
    C++ not support multithreading concept.Java supports multithreading concept.
  • Why Java is so popular programming language?

  • Java is based on object model hence it is one the popular programming language.
  • What are the scope of Java Technologies for Web Applications?

  • Java Technologies for Web Applications are a set of Java-based technologies that are used to develop web applications. These technologies include:
    • Java Servlet API
    • JavaServer Pages
    • JavaServer Faces
    • Enterprise JavaBeans
    • JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)
    • Java Messaging Service (JMS):
    • JavaMail API:
    • JAX-WS
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